Land of the Leopard
Land of the Leopard National Park is managed by the joint administration of the Kedrovaya Pad Biosphere Reserve and Land of the Leopard National Park (established on 21 May 2012). The national park was created by resolution of the Russian government on 5 April 2012.

Land of the Leopard National Park accounts for about 70 percent of the leopard’s natural habitat. Its critical mission is to save and preserve the Far Eastern leopard population. The decision to establish the park was truly historic: the world’s rarest wild cat, the Far Eastern leopard, can now live in safety on an area of nearly 2,800 square kilometres (to compare, Moscow has an area of 2,511 square kilometres).

Land of the Leopard National Park has a differentiated special
protection regime, factoring in natural, historical, cultural
and other characteristics. There are five distinct zones.


Kedrovaya Pad Biosphere Reserve

Land of the Leopard National Park zones

Reserve zone Specially protected zone Recreational zone Economic zone Protected zone of the
national park

Feeding grounds

Existing mineral licks Planned mineral licks Existing feeding grounds Planned feeding grounds
Climate

Monthly and annual precipitation (mm)

Monthly and annual mean air temperature (°C)

Narvinsky Tunnel

This 575-metre tunnel is part of the Khasan–Razdolnoye motorway that runs through Land of the Leopard National Park. The tunnel cuts through the relatively low (about 400 metres) Narvinsky Mountain Pass in the Sukhorechensky Ridge, which separates the valleys of the Narva and Barabashevka rivers. The main purpose of the tunnel is to separate the vehicle traffic from the animals’ migration routes. The Narvinsky Tunnel opened on 26 March, 2016.
Feeding grounds

Maintaining the Far Eastern leopard’s food sources (primarily hoofed animals) is one of the national park’s priorities. Feeding is especially important during times of abundant snowfall and low temperatures, when it is difficult for ungulates to procure food on their own. They burn most of their energy keeping their core temperatures up and traversing the thick snow. The feeding grounds provide them with a guaranteed food source.

Several kinds of fodder are usually available at feeding grounds: bulk grain (oats, barley, corn, wheat, soy and whole soy beans, as well as soy and fish meal), coarse fodder (dry grass – hay, soybean straw and twigs; Zostera marina, a species of seagrass with natural salt and essential nutrients); and succulent feeds (beetroot, carrots, cabbage and pumpkin).

To give feeding grounds a more natural appearance, all structures are made of the kinds of wood that are familiar to the animals, such as ash or oak. The roof is covered with rolled roofing materials (bitumen corrugated sheets or roofing felt) so that the sound of rain drops on the roof does not scare off the animals.

A mineral lick is a type of soil that contains a high concentration of sodium. Artificial salt licks provide mineral nutrients for ungulates (sodium chloride or sodium bicarbonate). The animals need to replenish minerals that play an important role in strengthening the skeleton and the development of antlers.

Flora and fauna of Land of the Leopard

Land of the Leopard National Park is part of the mixed forests of Manchuria (present-day Primorye and Amur), also known as the Amur ecoregion. It is the only part of Russia other than the Caucasus that was not affected by the last glacial period, helping to preserve a diverse mix of flora and fauna. Ancient relic plants and species of tropical fauna abound here.

The big cats share their habitat both with typical "southerners" — spotted deer, Himalayan bears, Ussuri martens and raccoon dogs; and with "northerners" — boar, roe deer, badgers, musk deer and Siberian weasels. There are mighty cedars (Korean pine) and slender spruce, entwined with Actinidia vines. And it is the only place where you can see emerald Amur grapes winding around huge trees.

The national park is home to a diverse collection of flora and fauna.

Alpine Black Swallowtail

Chinese Windmill

Oomizuao

Relict longhorn beetle

Stag beetle

Ground beetle

Shiitake

Far Eastern boletus

Old Man of the Woods

Reishi mushroom

Netted Stinkhorn

Coral Tooth

Lychnis fulgens Fisch

Japanese
Emperor Oak

Royal Azalea

Manchurian Fir

Far Eastern lily of the valley

Kalopanax septemlobus

Freshwater algae
273 species

Золотистые водоросли

Жёлтозелёные водоросли

Красные водоросли

Диатомовые водоросли

Зелёные водоросли

Синезелёные водоросли

Mandarin duck

Woodcock

Hoopoe

Black vulture

Steller's sea eagle

Grey heron

Black Foam lichen

Smoker's Lung lichen

Coccocarpia erythroxyli

Anzia opuntiella

Cetrelia japonica

Wee Little Tree Flute

Umbrella liverwort

Hondaella caperata

Miyabea fruticella

Trichocoleopsis sacculata

Rose moss

Flat-leaved Scalewort

Amur tiger

Raccoon dog

Sika deer

Lynx

Himalayan black bear

Amur
leopard cat

Cherry salmon

White-spotted char

Cherskii's sculpin

Dolly Varden trout

Amur minnow

Three-spined stickleback

Amur coluber

Asian tiger snake

Pallas' coluber

Amur viper

Red-banded snake

Amur lizard

Far Eastern tree frog

Oriental fire-bellied toad

Japanese tree frog

Asiatic toad

Siberian salamander

Mongolian toad